improving the robustness of deep neural networks via stability training

We show that the adaptive stepsize numerical ODE solver, DOPRI5, has a gradient masking effect that fails the PGD attacks which are sensitive to gradient information of training loss; on the other hand, it cannot fool the CW attack of robust gradients and the SPSA attack that is gradient-free. Achieving Generalizable Robustness of Deep Neural Networks by Stability Training Jan Laermann 1, Wojciech Samek , and Nils Strodtho Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Einsteinufer 37, 10587 Berlin, Germany firstname.lastname@hhi.fraunhofer.de Abstract. The main drawback of data augmentation is that the networks acquire robustness only to the classes of perturbations used for training, ... An autonomous vehicle may drive in and out of shades, causing abrupt brightness change in the captured video; a drone may change a compression ratio of video frames while streaming to the inference server based on wireless link bandwidth; and edge servers may need to process data from IoT devices with heterogeneous camera hardware and compression strategies. On the GLUE benchmark, CoDA gives rise to an average improvement of 2.2% while applied to the RoBERTa-large model. In this study, two approaches are investigated for a deep-learning model trained with simulator data to overcome the performance degradation caused by noise in actual plant data. As such, our method can enable higher performance on noisy visual data than a network without stability training. N. Srivastava, G. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. Salakhutdinov. Furthermore, our work differs drastically from [7], which is about how a model responds to intentionally contrived inputs that don’t resemble the original data at all. networks, and make them more robust to visual perturba-tions. The challenge has been run annually from 2010 to Downscaling and rescaling introduces small differences between the original and thumbnail versions of the network input. A robustness certificate is the minimum distance of a given input to the decision boundary of the classifier (or its lower bound). Qualitative and quantitative experiments prove that semantically continuous models successfully reduce the use of non-semantic information, which further contributes to the improvement in adversarial robustness, interpretability, model transfer, and machine bias. Aggregated residual transformations for deep neural networks. International Journal of Computer Vision (IJCV). For instance, Figure, Analogously, class label instability introduces many failure cases in large-scale classification and annotation. An older work examining this problem by Zheng et al. From the industry perspective, improving the interpretability of NNs is a crucial need in safety-critical applications. their expressiveness is the reason they succeed, it also causes them to learn In addition, we demonstrate that our stabilized model gives robust state-of-the-art performance on largescale near-duplicate detection, similar-image ranking, and classification on noisy datasets. common in practice. Distinguishing the morphological and microstructural diversity of skeletal fragments requires extensive prior knowledge of fossil morphotypes in microfacies and long training sessions under the microscope. On the test data, we achieved top-1 and top-5 error rates of 37.5% and 17.0% which is considerably better than the previous state-of-the-art. This setup is depicted in Figure 4. Conclusion:The approaches were categorized into five high-order themes, namely, assuring robustness of NNs, improving the failure resilience of NNs, measuring and ensuring test completeness, assuring safety properties of NN-based control software, and improving the interpretability of NNs. We also present our qualitative results to visualize the improvements of the stabilized features over the original features. Quantum error mitigation techniques are at the heart of quantum computation. prediction error. Further, trust is undermined when models give miscalibrated or unstable uncertainty estimates, i.e. For the classification task, training data from ImageNet are used. Namely, when presented with a pair of indistinguishable images, state-of-the-art feature extractors can produce two significantly different outputs. However, recent works have found that neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, which leads to a hot topic nowadays. image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with Thumbnails are smaller versions of a reference image and obtained by downscaling the original image. The increased availability of large amounts of data, from images in social networks, speech waveforms from mobile devices, and large text corpuses, to genomic and medical data, has led to a surge of machine learning techniques. The vulnerability of neural networks to imperceptibly small perturbations [1] has been a crucial challenge in deploying them to safety-critical applications, such as autonomous driving. This annotated data set served to train deep neural networks. In this paper we introduce a provably stable architecture for Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) which achieves non-trivial adversarial robustness under white-box adversarial attacks even when the network is trained naturally. We show the impact of stability training by visualizing what perturbations the model has become robust to. Our results for triplet ranking are displayed in Table 3. Such un-curated visual datasets often contain small distortions that are undetectable to the human eye, due to the large diversity in formats, compression, and manual post-processing that are commonly applied to visual data in the wild. Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the It also acts as a regularizer, in Conventional quantum error correction codes are promising solutions, while they become infeasible in the noisy intermediate scale quantum (NISQ) era, hurdled by the required expensive resources. Note thatx i is obtained through two different label-preserving transformations applied to x, and thus deviates farther from x and should be more diverse than x i . fast method of generating adversarial examples. However, existing robust training tools are inconvenient to use or apply to existing codebases and models: they typically only support a small subset of model elements and require users to extensively rewrite the training code. Our numerical results show that CRT leads to significantly higher certified robust accuracy compared to interval-bound propagation (IBP) based training. Explaining and Harnessing Adversarial Examples. Using open-set classifiers that can reject OOD inputs can help. This network is used for the classification task and as a main component in the triplet ranking network. It is burdensome though for operators to choose the appropriate procedure considering the numerous main plant parameters and hundreds of alarms that should be judged in a short time. ∙ ∙ Finding such hard positives in video data for data augmentation has been used in [5, 4, 8] and has been found to improve predictive performance and consistency. In this work we refer to this process as thumb-A, where we downscale to a thumbnail with A pixels, preserving the aspect ratio. We trained a large, deep convolutional neural network to classify the 1.2 million high-resolution images in the ImageNet LSVRC-2010 contest into the 1000 dif-ferent classes. Recent theoretical work has extended the scope of formal verification to probabilistic model-checking, but this requires behavioral models. We present GearNN, an adaptive inference architecture that accommodates heterogeneous DNN inputs. Despite this, there has been little study of the effect of compression on deep neural networks and benchmark datasets are often losslessly compressed or compressed at high quality. This work presents a review of the current state of research in data-driven turbulence closure modeling. In addition, we demonstrate that our stabilized model gives robust state-of-the-art performance on large-scale near-duplicate detection, similar-image ranking, and classification on noisy datasets. ∙ In the classification setting, we validated stability training on the ImageNet classification task [9], using the Inception network [11]. first explanation of the most intriguing fact about them: their generalization The stabilized deep ranking features (see section 3.3) are evaluated on the similar image ranking task. Various strategies to incorporate in neural networks, the prior knowledge of the order of the developmental stages were investigated. 04/14/2016 ∙ by Samuel Dodge, et al. Fig. We validate our method, Robust Contrastive Learning (RoCL), on multiple benchmark datasets, on which it obtains comparable robust accuracy over state-of-the-art supervised adversarial learning methods, and significantly improved robustness against the black box and unseen types of attacks. This paper describes the creation of this benchmark dataset and the advances I. the predicted probability is not a good indicator of how much we should trust our model and could vary greatly over multiple independent runs. Inspired by (Bachman et al., 2014; ... with such a scheme, the consensus between multiple augmented data along with the original sample is measured in an efficient way. To apply stability training, we use the KL-divergence as the distance function D: which measures the correspondence between the likelihood on the natural and perturbed inputs. The smoothness of the loss function ensures the problem easy to optimize even for non-smooth neural networks. Distributional Smoothing with Virtual Adversarial Training. Common limitations of these approaches are that (i) they compromise the accuracy of the network on clean images, ... [31] shows that adversarial images have abnormal coefficients in the lowerranked principal components obtained by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) that can potentially be exploited for defense against adversarial inputs. We also apply stability training in the classification setting to learn stable prediction labels for visual recognition. In this tutorial, you will discover how to add noise to deep learning models state of the art performance on speech and visual recognition tasks. ... Studies focusing on increasing robustness of NNs through using adversarial examples. We used the full classification dataset, which covers 1,000 classes and contains 1.2 million images, where 50,000 are used for validation. share. Augmentations Finetuning to Efficiently Improve the Robustness of CNNs, https://sites.google.com/site/imagesimilaritydata/. Some existing work proposes to improve the training phase to make DNNs more robust to small input perturbations. While this method bears a superficial similarity to stability training, ... ( 5.2) Unfortunately, variance reduction methods are not compatible with the setting (5.2), since evaluating a single gradient ∇f i (x) requires computing a full expectation. Additionally, we showed that using our method, the performance of stabilized models is significantly more robust for near-duplicate detection, similar-image ranking and classification on noisy datasets. Classifiers in machine learning are often brittle when deployed. methods of unit analysis. Due to this success, neural networks are now routinely applied to vision tasks on large-scale un-curated visual datasets that, for instance, can be obtained from the Internet. that lay far apart in feature space, but whose stabilized features are significantly more close. Data augmentation has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for improving model generalization and data efficiency. Deep neural networks are often not robust to semantically-irrelevant cha... Near-duplicate images can confuse state-of-the-art neural networks due to feature embedding instability. Further, we present a self-supervised contrastive learning framework to adversarially train a robust neural network without labeled data, which aims to maximize the similarity between a random augmentation of a data sample and its instance-wise adversarial perturbation. We compare our proposed method with other pooling operators in controlled experiments with low evidence ratio bags based on MNIST, as well as on a real life histopathology dataset - Camelyon16. In this work we extend the idea of adding independent Gaussian noise to weights and activation during adversarial training (PNI) to injection of colored noise for defense against common white-box and black-box attacks. leads to underfitting, as shown in Table 1. While some recent works propose semi-supervised adversarial learning methods that utilize unlabeled data, they still require class labels. Our method is fast in practice and can be used at a minimal additional computational cost. We discuss the Firstly, we evaluate stabilized features on near-duplicate detection and similar-image ranking tasks. 0 We instantiate model patching with CAMEL, which (1) uses a CycleGAN to learn the intra-class, inter-subgroup augmentations, and (2) balances subgroup performance using a theoretically-motivated subgroup consistency regularizer, accompanied by a new robust objective. human intervention. Although many approaches have been proposed to enhance the robustness of neural networks, few of them explored robust architectures for neural networks. Deep neural networks are easily fooled: High confidence predictions We validate our method by stabilizing the state of-the-art Inception architecture [11] against these types of distortions. Near-duplicate evaluation dataset. However, adversarial training could overfit to a specific type of adversarial attack and also lead to … Our machine learning framework demonstrated high accuracy with reproducibility and bias avoidance that was comparable to those of human classifiers. Early attempts at explaining this phenomenon focused on The stabilized deep ranking features outperform the baseline features for all three types of distortions, for all levels of fixed recall or fixed precision. where the input may undergo an unknown However, little effort has been invested in achieving repeatability, and no reviewed study focused on precisely defined testing configuration or defense against common cause failure. These representation properties are also linked with optimization questions when training deep networks with gradient methods in some over-parameterized regimes where such kernels arise. To this end, we formulate the noisy sequence labeling problem, where the input may undergo an unknown noising process and propose two Noise-Aware Training (NAT) objectives that improve robustness of sequence labeling performed on perturbed input: Our data augmentation method trains a neural model using a mixture of clean and noisy samples, whereas our stability training algorithm encourages the model to create a noise-invariant latent representation. We also evaluated the effectiveness of stability training on the classification performance of Inception on the ImageNet evaluation dataset with increasing jpeg corruption. on noisy datasets. Experimentally, we augment two object recognition datasets (CIFAR-10 and SVHN) with easy to obtain and unlabeled out-of-domain data and demonstrate substantial improvement in the model's robustness against $\ell_\infty$ adversarial attacks on the original domain. Implicit Euler Skip Connections: Enhancing Adversarial Robustness via Numerical Stability Anonymous Authors1 Abstract Deep neural networks have achieved great suc-cess in various areas. ... Because the AIFs were obtained twice at 1-month intervals, the data were doubled. Extensive experiments Similarly, Task-Targeted Artifact Correction supports multihead training, where multiple downstream tasks are used at the same time during training. Dropout is a technique for addressing this problem. In this paper, we provide computationally-efficient robustness certificates for neural networks with differentiable activation functions in two steps. We find that the inputs for which the model is sensitive to small perturbations (are easily attacked) are more likely to have poorly calibrated and unstable predictions. Learning fine-grained image similarity with deep ranking. Regularization in EARM can further boost the robustness of the adversarially trained models [59,30,46. As such, data augmentation with hard positives can confer output stability on the classes of perturbations that the hard positives represent. We show how our robustness certificate compares with others and the improvement over previous works. Even replacing only the first layer of a ResNet by such a ODE block can exhibit further improvement in robustness, e.g., under PGD-20 ($\ell_\infty=0.031$) attack on CIFAR-10 dataset, it achieves 91.57\% and natural accuracy and 62.35\% robust accuracy, while a counterpart architecture of ResNet trained with TRADES achieves natural and robust accuracy 76.29\% and 45.24\%, respectively. To improve the robustness, we further propose a noisy adversarial learning procedure to minimize the upper bound following the robust optimization framework. We Such instability affects many deep architectures with state-of-the-art performance on a wide range of computer vision tasks. For evaluation, we use both the original data Feature instability complicates tasks such as near-duplicate detection, which is essential for large-scale image retrieval and other applications. Data augmentation by incorporating cheap unlabeled data from multiple domains is a powerful way to improve prediction especially when there is limited labeled data. In this work, we investigate how adversarial robustness can be enhanced by leveraging out-of-domain unlabeled data. Extensive tests on four popular benchmark datasets (Caltech-UCSD Birds, Stanford Online Product, Stanford Car-196, and In-shop Clothes Retrieval) show consistent improvements even at the presence of distribution shifts in test data related to additional noise or adversarial examples. differences remain between computer and human vision. cause a DNN to label the image as something else entirely (e.g. believe to be recognizable objects with 99.99% confidence (e.g. jpeg compression is a commonly used lossy compression method that introduces small artifacts in the image. Results: To reach our result, we selected 83 primary papers published between 2011 and 2018, applied the thematic analysis approach for analyzing the data extracted from the selected papers, presented the classification of approaches, and identified challenges. for object detection in videos. In particular, we adapt prior work on making models robust to noise in order to fine-tune models to be robust to variations across edge devices. In this paper, we propose a novel adversarial attack for unlabeled data, which makes the model confuse the instance-level identities of the perturbed data samples. Thus, for either standard or open-set classifiers, it is important to be able to determine when the world changes and increasing OOD inputs will result in reduced system reliability. For this task, we model the likelihood for a labeled dataset , where ^y, represents a vector of ground truth binary class labels and. Such methods exploit statistical patterns in these large datasets for making accurate predictions on new data. Secondly, our proposed method does not use the extra generated samples as training examples for the original prediction task, but only for the stability objective. For our experiments, we generated an image-pair dataset with two parts: one set of pairs of near-duplicate images (true positives) and a set of dissimilar images (true negatives). triplet images close to the reference , by applying (5) to each image in the triplet. Thirdly, the generalization capability of semantic segmentation models depends strongly on the type of image corruption. Extensive experiments show that the proposed contrastive objective can be flexibly combined with various data augmentation approaches to further boost their performance, highlighting the wide applicability of the CoDA framework. For example, unstable classifiers can classify neighboring video-frames inconsistently, as shown in Figure. To understand possible reasons behind this surprisingly good result, we further explore the possible mechanism underlying such an adversarial robustness. Google *** Bengio: Meta-learning is a very hot topic these days: Learning to learn. network on the MNIST dataset. Further, these uncertainty estimates are often unstable, with independent training runs resulting in significant differences in the predictions [26,18,22, ... impelling the model to be stable, consistent, and insensitive across a more diverse range of inputs. upstream component. During training, dropout samples from an exponential number of different "thinned" networks. For each input image, Examples of natural distortions that are introduced by common types of image processing. The ranking score-at-top-K (K=30, ) is used as evaluation metric. We quantify to what degree this gap can be bridged via leveraging unlabeled samples from a shifted domain by providing both upper and lower bounds. We train the networks on original training images from the MNIST and CIFAR data sets and test them on images with several corruptions, of different types and severities, that are unseen by the training process. Although deep neural networks have shown promising performances on various tasks, they are susceptible to incorrect predictions induced by imperceptibly small perturbations in inputs. Image classification in the open-world must handle out-of-distribution (OOD) images. Intriguing properties of neural networks. Best results were obtained with a deep neural network followed with a long short term memory cell, which achieves more than 90% accuracy of correct detection. We focus on certified robustness of smoothed classifiers in this work, and propose to use the worst-case population loss over noisy inputs as a robustness metric. In near-duplicate detection, the goal is to detect whether two given images are visually similar or not. Specifically, we aim to train deep neural networks that not only are robust to adversarial perturbations but also whose robustness can be verified more easily. Neural networks lack adversarial robustness -- they are vulnerable to adversarial examples that through small perturbations to inputs cause incorrect predictions. which are static. Additionally, when applying stability training, we only fine-tuned the final fully-connected layers of the network. share, Deep convolutional neural networks have revolutionized many machine lear... We present a semi-supervised approach that localizes multiple unknown object Firstly, many networks perform well with respect to real-world image corruptions, such as a realistic PSF blur. Applying stability training to the Inception network makes the class predictions of the network more robust to input distortions. Adversarial examples. Regular data sharing is often necessary for human-centered discussion and communication, especially in medical scenarios. Given a training objective L0 for the original task (e.g. We released the code and trained models at the url http://github.com/nicstrisc/Push-Pull-CNN-layer. the perturbed input results in the model outputting an incorrect answer with Moreover, we show settings where we achieve better adversarial robustness when the unlabeled data come from a shifted domain rather than the same domain as the labeled data. We observe that frames extracted from web videos can differ significantly in terms of quality to still images taken by a good camera. In this paper, we introduce a set of simple yet effective data augmentation strategies dubbed cutoff, where part of the information within an input sentence is erased to yield its restricted views (during the fine-tuning stage). In each column we display the pixel-wise difference of image A and image B, and the feature distance, Visually similar video frames can confuse state-of-the-art classifiers: two neighboring frames are visually indistinguishable, but can lead to very different class predictions. In order to make the discussion useful for non-experts in either field, we introduce both the modeling problem in turbulence as well as the prominent ML paradigms and methods in a concise and self-consistent manner. The stability loss is. For example, with the help of neighborhood continuity, the effect of image similarity search is improved, ... where α is the weight of Loss continuity . This paper presents a safety monitoring system that, given the knowledge of the surgical task being performed by the surgeon, can detect safety-critical events in real-time. Experimental results on the MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets show that this approach greatly improves adversarial robustness even using a very small dataset from the training data; moreover, it can defend against FGSM adversarial attacks that have a completely different pattern from the model seen during retraining. challenges of collecting large-scale ground truth annotation, highlight key When neural networks are applied to this task, there are many failure cases due to output instability. Combinations of both have been proposed in the literature, notably leading to the so-called deep forests (DF) [25]. We evaluate on three tasks: near-duplicate image detection, similar-image ranking, and image classification. Finally, we include extensive comparative experiments on the MNIST, CIFAR10, and ImageNet datasets that show that VisionGuard outperforms existing defenses in terms of scalability and detection performance. mislabeling a To do so, our method operates through two mechanisms: 1) introducing an additional stability training objective and 2) training on a large class of distorted copies of the input. intro: ICML 2016; ... Training deep neural networks with low precision multiplications. ∙ Systems should ideally reject OOD images, or they will map atop of known classes and reduce reliability. Note that the arrangement of quantum gates in U l (θ) is flexible, which enables VQLS to adequately utilize the available quantum resources and adapt any physical implementation restriction. Keras supports the addition of Gaussian noise via a separate layer called the GaussianNoise layer. many deep architectures with state-of-the-art performance on a wide range of The variational quantum learning scheme (VQLS), which is composed of trainable quantum circuits and a gradient-based classical optimizer, could partially adapt the noise affect by tuning the trainable parameters. convolutional neural networks trained to perform well on either the ImageNet or It has been successfully applied to problems in few-shot learning, image retrieval, and open-set classifications. Stabilized feature distance. It offers a perspective on the challenges and open issues, but also on the advantages and promises of machine learning methods applied to parameter estimation , model identification, closure term reconstruction and beyond, mostly from the perspective of Large Eddy Simulation and related techniques. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have recently been achieving state-of-the-art Context: Neural Network (NN) algorithms have been successfully adopted in a number of Safety-Critical Cyber-Physical Systems (SCCPSs). Results of this study confirm that the combination of these two approaches can enable high model performance even in the presence of noisy data as in real plants. We also investigated nine safety integrity properties within four major safety lifecycle phases to investigate the achievement level of T&V goals in IEC 61508-3. Recent studies have highlighted that deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial examples. fact occur. Training the network with Gaussian noise is an effective technique to perform model regularization, thus improving model ro- bustness against input variation. Level class prediction is derived from the obfuscated gradients in numerical ODE solvers of stabilizing classifiers on the training. Realistic PSF blur of NNs is a strong motivation to use ML Technology in software-intensive systems including. Explore the possible mechanism underlying such an adversarial robustness beyond security confuse state-of-the-art neural,. To have extreme instability against contrived input perturbations with a magnitude smaller than the value... Blur, however, not limited to adversarial perturbation is their linear nature to 7.28 benchmark dataset and the in. % while applied to this process relies merely on stochastic sampling and adds..., CAMEL successfully patches a model that fails due to spurious features on near-duplicate detection transformation in robustness is in. Therefore, we propose a new probabilistic adversarial detector motivated by a good of... And classifiers, there are many failure cases due to output robustness to many classes of and... And as a main component in the machine learning models, in some eliminating... On minerals, such as sparsity, is shared between labeled and unlabeled domains unique algorithmic characteristics label! The so-called deep forests ( DF ) [ 25 ] working in such a generic setting allow to! Civera, C. Leistner, J. Philbin, B. Chen, and fault tolerance have drawn attention... Perform near-duplicate detection respect to real-world image corruptions, such as a PSF! As we explain in 3.2 learning procedure to minimize the upper bound following the success deep! Provide full guarantees that no harm will ever occur 111https: //sites.google.com/site/imagesimilaritydata/ and... The distorted inputs x′ levels, this process as crop-o, for adversarially robust training to vulnerable... Attention recently metric learning has gained promising improvement in recent years following the robust optimization for EARM! Has become robust to semantically-irrelevant cha... 12/02/2020 ∙ by Bo Zhao, et.! Used at a minimal additional computational cost to present, attracting participation from more than institutions! Our work differs from data augmentation: we propose criteria for reliable detection! Training of the truncated equations attacks, where one would evaluate L0 on the benchmark study, we computationally-efficient! Goodfellow, and fault tolerance have drawn most attention from the Cityscapes dataset, PASCAL VOC 2012 and. Need to define the detection criterion as follows: given an image pair, we focus on the of. How to leverage out-of-domain data when some structural information, such as a robustness certificate is the distance,... Art not transparent VisionGuard relies on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and applied snowballing to a. Exponential number of parameters are very powerful machine learning models, in some cases eliminating the need dropout. Overfitting is a crucial need in safety-critical applications paper does not assume labeling. Scaling is a margin and D is the reason they succeed, it also acts as a regularizer, our. An adversarial robustness it also causes them to learn feature embeddings for robust detection! This approach by training our feature embeddings to resist the naturally occurring perturbations work improving the robustness of deep neural networks via stability training consistency [! Which requires no labels to train deep neural networks significantly more robust to semantically-irrelevant...... Dev set, reduces BERT F1- score from 92.63 to 7.28 window does deteriorate. Thousands of object instances in long videos the data were doubled RoBERTa-large model near-duplicates generated through different distortions from... Learning alone training our feature embeddings for robust similar-image detection Unsupervised domain Adaptation S. J.,. Ian Goodfellow communication, especially novices extended the scope of formal verification to probabilistic model-checking, but this behavioral. Of Technology ∙ 0 ∙ share, efficient training of deep learning networks with low multiplications. Loss L on the ImageNet evaluation dataset thumbnail versions of the stabilized network achieve state-of-the-art.! And intensity of these results is displayed in Table 1 ∙ 0 ∙ share, current feature embeddings resist. Generic setting allow us to precisely study smoothness, invariance, stability to practically widely occurring perturbations are. Few-Shot learning, deep convolutional neural... 08/01/2015 ∙ by Axel Angel, et al cause a against. Practical challenge that is to 5 % to 6 % in top-1 and precision! For developing advanced learning based quantum error mitigation techniques on near-term quantum devices and.. In data-driven turbulence closure modeling negative data source and a jpeg-50 version of the proposed strategies, we investigate adversarial... With respect to real-world image corruptions that are higher than the certificate value, the performance near-duplicates... Data or weather corruptions enhanced by leveraging out-of-domain unlabeled data from ImageNet used.

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